Head and Neck Cancer
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Eye, nasal cavity cancers (nose)

Our experts in medical and radiation oncology, otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, and speech and rehabilitation therapy offer a wide range of treatment options for both eye and nasal cavity cancers, and for recurrence.

Risk assessment

We collaborate with our colleagues in ophthalmology, and otolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Exposures to industrial inhalants are thought to increase risk for nasal cavity cancers. Also, a subgroup of patients showed that increased risk of nasal cavity cancers is associated with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection. For eye cancers, being elderly and having fair skin increases risk.

Diagnosis & treatment options

Nasal cavity cancer »

For patients with nasal cavity cancer, pre-treatment evaluation and staging is very important and is based on:

  • inspection
  • palpation
  • direct endoscopy
  • histology and pathology

Newly diagnosed with nasal cavity cancer

We offer the following treatments:

  • Surgery
    • fenestration with removal of bulk tumour followed by radiation therapy/block resection of upper jaw
    • combined craniofacial approach including resection of floor of anterior cranial fossa
    • removal of eye if the orbit is extensively invaded by cancer
    • clinically positive nodes may be treated via radical neck dissection
  • Radiaton therapy
    • high doses required for significant probability of permanent control
    • treatment volume involves maxillary antrum and hemiparanasal sinus and contiguous areas

Recurrent nasal cavity cancer

Treatment varies depending on findings and symptoms, and may include:

  • Latest targeted therapies, for example: chemotherapy for recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has shown promise.

Eye cancer »

For patients with eye cancer, regular eye exams and clinic visits are encouraged. We look for symptoms via the following:

  • physical exam/history of illness
  • eye exams with dilated pupils
    • opthalmoscopy
    • slit-lamp biomicroscopy
    • gonioscopy
  • ultrasound exam of the eyes
  • high-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy
  • transillumination of the globe & iris
  • fluorescein angiography
  • indocyanine green angiography
  • ocular coherence yomography
  • biopsy
    • cytogenetic analysis
    • gene expression profiling

Newly diagnosed with eye cancer

Treatment varies depending on findings and symptoms, and may include:

  • watchful waiting
  • surgery (resection/enucleation)
  • plaque radiation therapy
  • charged-particle external-beam radiation therapy
  • gamma knife therapy
  • thermotherapy
  • clinical trials

Recurrent eye cancer

Treatment options may involve participation in clinical trials.


Stay connected to your health information


Questions? Learn more   

About eye & nasal cavity cancers

Nasal cavity refers to the large air-filled space above and behind the nose (where each cavity is the continuation of one of the two nostrils).

Intraocular melanoma refers to the rare disease in which cancer forms in melanocytes of the eye.