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Drug-induced delirium

Anticholinergics

Antihistamines

  • Chlorpheniramine (often in “night time” cold and allergy products)
  • Dimenhydrinate (Gravol®)
  • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl®, is also the active ingredient in Nytol®, Simply Sleep®, Unisom®)
  • Hydroxyzine (Atarax®)

Antidepressants

  • Amitriptyline (Elavil®)
  • Imipramine (Tofranil®)
  • Nortriptyline (Aventyl®)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil®)

Antiparkinsonian Agents

  • Benztropine (Cogentin®)
  • Trihexyphenidyl (Artane®)

Other

  • Belladonna
  • Lomotil®
  • Antiarrhythmics (Quinidine)
  • Oxybutynin (Ditropan)

Sedatives/Hypnotics

Benzodiazepines and related
  • Diazepam (Valium®)
  • Flurazepam (Dalmane®)
  • Lorazepam (Ativan®)
  • Zopiclone (Imovane®)

Barbiturates

  • Phenobarbital
  • Amobarbital
  • Secobarbital

Narcotics

  • Meperidine (Demerol®)
  • Morphine (Statex®, MS Contin®, M-Eslon®, Kadian®)

Anticonvulsants

  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol®)
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin®)
  • Phenobarbital
  • Valproic Acid /Divalproex (Depekene®/Epival®)

Antibiotics/Antivirals

  • Acyclovir (Zovirax®)
  • Quinolones: Levofl oxacin (Levaquin®), Ciprofl oxacin (Cipro®)
  • Penicillins
  • Sulfonamides: Co-trimoxazole (Septra®, Bactrim®)
  • Aminoglycosides: Tobramycin, Gentamicin
  • Antivirals: Valacyclovir (Valtrex), Famciclovir (Famvir)

Cardiovascular

  • Amiodarone (Cordarone®)
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin®)
  • Diuretics - Furosemide (Lasix®)
  • Lidocaine
  • Beta-blockers - Propranolol (Inderol®)

Miscellaneous

  • H2-Blockers - Cimetidine (Tagamet®); Ranitidine (Zantac®)
  • Lithium
  • Metoclopramide (Maxeran®) 
  • NSAIDs

Corticosteroids

  • Prednisone

Drug Withdrawal

  • Benzodiazepines
  • Alcohol


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